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A new backup connection is being deployed on a remote site router. The stability of the connection
has been a concern. In order to provide more information to EIGRP regarding this interface, you
wish to incorporate the “reliability” cost metric in the EIGRP calculation with the command metric
weights 1 0 1 0 1.
What impact will this modification on the remote site router have for other existing EIGRP
neighborships from the same EIGRP domain?
A. Existing neighbors will immediately begin using the new metric.
B. Existing neighbors will use the new metric after clearing the EIGRP neighbors.
C. Existing neighbors will resync, maintaining the neighbor relationship.
D. All existing neighbor relationships will go down.
Why would a rogue host that is running a DHCP server on a campus LAN network present a
A. It may allocate IP addresses from an unknown subnet to the users.
B. All multicast traffic can be sniffed by using the DHCP multicast capabilities.
C. The CPU utilization of the first hop router can be overloaded by exploiting DHCP relay open
D. A potential man-in-the-middle attack can be used against the clients.
Which two are effects of connecting a network segment that is running 802.1D to a network
segment that is running 802.1w? (Choose two.)
A. The entire network switches to 802.1D and generates BPDUs to determine root bridge status. B.
A migration delay of three seconds occurs when the port that is connected to the 802.1D bridge
C. The entire network reconverges and a unique root bridge for the 802.1D segment, and a root
bridge for the 802.1w segment, is chosen.
D. The first hop 802.1w switch that is connected to the 802.1D runs entirely in 802.1D compatibility
mode and converts the BPDUs to either 802.1D or 802.1w BPDUs to the 802.1D or 802.1w
segments of the network.
E. Classic 802.1D timers, such as forward delay and max-age, will only be used as a backup, and
will not be necessary if point-to-point links and edge ports are properly identified and set by the
Each port maintains a variable that defines the protocol to run on the corresponding segment. A
migration delay timer of three seconds also starts when the port comes up. When this timer runs,
the current STP or RSTP mode associated to the port is locked. As soon as the migration delay
expires, the port adapts to the mode that corresponds to the next BPDU it receives. If the port
changes its mode of operation as a result of a BPDU received, the migration delay restarts.
802.1D works by the concept that the protocol had to wait for the network to converge before it
transitioned a port into the forwarding state. With Rapid Spanning Tree it does not have to rely on
any timers, the only variables that that it relies on is edge ports and link types.
Any uplink port that has an alternate port to the root can be directly placed into the forwarding
state (This is the Rapid convergence that you speak of “restored quickly when RSTP is already in
use?”). This is what happened when you disconnected the primary look; the port that was ALT,
moved to FWD immediately, but the switch also still needs to create a BDU with the TC bit set to
notify the rest of the network that a topology has occurred and all non-edge designated ports will
transition to BLK, LRN, and then FWD to ensure there are no loops in the rest of the network. This
is why if you have a host on a switchport, and you know for a fact that it is only one host, enable
portfast to configure the port as an edgeport so that it does not have to transition to all the STP
Which three options are features of VTP version 3? (Choose three.)
A. VTPv3 supports 8K VLANs.
B. VTPv3 supports private VLAN mapping.
C. VTPv3 allows for domain discovery.
D. VTPv3 uses a primary server concept to avoid configuration revision issues.
E. VTPv3 is not compatible with VTPv1 or VTPv2.
F. VTPv3 has a hidden password option.
Key Benefits of VTP Version 3
Much work has gone into improving the usability of VTP version 3 in three major areas:
The new version of VTP offers better administrative control over which device is allowed to update
other devices\’ view of the VLAN topology. The chance of unintended and disruptive changes is
significantly reduced, and availability is increased. The reduced risk of unintended changes will
ease the change process and help speed deployment.
Functionality for the VLAN environment has been significantly expanded. Two enhancements are
most beneficial for today\’s networks:
In 802.1s, how is the VLAN to instance mapping represented in the BPDU?
A. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 16-byte field in the MST BPDU.
B. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 12-byte field in the MST BPDU.
C. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 16-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
D. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 12-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
MST Configuration and MST Region
Each switch running MST in the network has a single MST configuration that consists of these
1. An alphanumeric configuration name (32 bytes)
2. A configuration revision number (two bytes)
3. A 4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4096 VLANs supported on the
chassis to a given instance.
In order to be part of a common MST region, a group of switches must share the same
It is up to the network administrator to properly propagate the configuration throughout the region.
Currently, this step is only possible by the means of the command line interface (CLI) or through
Management Protocol (SNMP). Other methods can be envisioned, as the IEEE specification does
not explicitly mention how to accomplish that step.
Note: If for any reason two switches differ on one or more configuration attribute, the switches are
part of different regions. For more information refer to the Region Boundary section of this
In order to ensure consistent VLAN-to-instance mapping, it is necessary for the protocol to be able
to exactly identify the boundaries of the regions. For that purpose, the characteristics of the region
are included in the BPDUs. The exact VLANs-to-instance mapping is not propagated in the BPDU,
because the switches only need to know whether they are in the same region as a neighbor.
Therefore, only a digest of the VLANs-toinstance mapping table is sent, along with the revision
number and the name. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extracts the digest (a
numerical value derived from the VLAN-to-instance mapping table through a mathematical
function) and compares this digest with its own computed digest. If the digests differ, the port on
which the BPDU was received is at the boundary of a region.
In generic terms, a port is at the boundary of a region if the designated bridge on its segment is in
a different region or if it receives legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the
boundary of region A, whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are internal to region B:
According to the IEEE 802.1s specification, an MST bridge must be able to handle at least these
One Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
One or more Multiple Spanning Tree Instance(s) (MSTIs)
The terminology continues to evolve, as 802.1s is actually in a pre-standard phase. It is likely
these names will change in the final release of 802.1s. The Cisco implementation supports 16
instances: one IST (instance 0) and 15 MSTIs.
show vtp status
Cisco switches “show vtp status” Field Descriptions has a MD5 digest field that is a 16-byte
checksum of the
VTP configuration as shown below
Router# show vtp status
VTP Version: 3 (capable)
Configuration Revision: 1
Maximum VLANs supported locally: 1005
Number of existing VLANs: 37
VTP Operating Mode: Server
VTP Domain Name: [smartports]
VTP Pruning Mode: Disabled
VTP V2 Mode: Enabled
VTP Traps Generation: Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69
Configuration last modified by 172.20.52.19 at 7-25-08 14:33:43
Local updater ID is 172.20.52.19 on interface Gi5/2 (first layer3 interface fou)
VTP version running: 2
Which three combinations are valid LACP configurations that will set up a channel? (Choose
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is correct about the prefix 126.96.36.199/8?
A. The prefix has encountered a routing loop.
B. The prefix is an aggregate with an as-set.
C. The prefix has been aggregated twice, once in AS 100 and once in AS 200.
D. None of these statements is true.
What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community
attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?
A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.
B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.
C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.
D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.
Refer to the exhibit.
After a link flap in the network, which two EIGRP neighbors will not be queried for alternative
paths? (Choose two.)
Both 192.168.3.7 and 192.168.3.8 are in an EIGRP Stub area
The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network
stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration.
Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network,
one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to
one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more
distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a
distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the
distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to
many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote
routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a
distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing
table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the
When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote
routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are
propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries,
connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the message
“inaccessible.” A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to
all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Any neighbor that receives a packet
informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes, and a router that has a
stub peer will not query that peer. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the
proper updates to all peers.
Refer to the exhibit.
Why is AS 65333 in parentheses?
A. It is an external AS.
B. It is a confederation AS.
C. It is the AS of a route reflector.
D. It is our own AS.
E. A route map has been applied to this route.
F. The BGP next hop is unreachable.
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